FrencH-English dictionary

The dictionary consists of French language terms for industrial materials, products and occupations that were encountered by the CANIND71 team, together with their English translations or paraphrases. Or general policy in coding the information from the manuscript census schedules was to transcribe the data in the language used by the original census enumerators rather than translate them. French language was used in 536 of the 1,701 Census Sub-districts, and in 38 other Census Sub-Districts there was a mixture of French and English. When a francophone enumerator had used the French language for type of establishment, names of raw materials and products, and units of measurement, these data were entered in French in the machine-readable record. For consistent designation of Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, our team had to understand French and English terms for the same industrial activities and processes.

The CANIND71 Dictionary proved to have more general interest. We expected that a good many terms would be distinctive Quebecois usages, still current today. It was revealing to discover how many Canadian French words and phrases of 1871 are no longer in use or even understood today with their 1871 meanings. Some words and phrases used in the 1871 manuscript census schedules seem to have been part of the oral vernacular tradition rather than language that was normally written. Anglicisms and English linguistic constructions were also used.

We acknowledge the contributions of Janine Grant and Barbara Sibley who found French terms while coding data from census manuscripts and made preliminary translations. Jane Turner completed the task, scanning all printouts of francophone records and investigating more difficult cases in consultation with Professor Leonard Adams of the Department of Languages, University of Guelph .

CANIND71’s French-English Dictionary was found useful in the interpretive work at Upper Canada Village, so Denis Jacques Savage, Trades Interpreter and Heritage Officer there, edited it to serve as an English-French dictionary as well.

References :

Bélisle, Louis-Alexandre. Dictionnaire nord-américain de la langue française. Montreal : Beauchemin, 1977.

Clapin, Sylva. Dictionnaire canadien-français. 1894. Reprint, Québec: les Presses de l'université Laval , 1974.

La société du parler français au Canada . Glossaire de parler français au Canada. Québec: Les Presses de l'université Laval , 1969.

Rey, A. et J. Rey-Debove, éds. Le Petit Robert: dictionnaire de la langue française. Paris : Le Robert, 1988.

Words identified by Bélisle as unique to Québec are noted. Some of the words may be written, and others are part of the province's oral tradition. Some anglicisms and English linguistic constructions have been incorporated into Quebécois industrial language, and have been noted in the text. Although current practice is to include both masculine and feminine nouns for occupations, only the traditional designation is listed in order to reflect the reality of the sexual division of labour in nineteenth-century industrial Canada . English translations that are explained in the CANIND71 Glossary are marked with an asterisk.

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

acajou (m): mahogany
ache (f): axe. In the Census, sometimes used instead of hache
acide (m): acid
acier (m): steel
acier structural préfabriqué (m): prefabricated steel structure
aciérie (f): steel factory
acre (f): *acre
agrès (m,pl): rigging of ship
agricole (adj): agricultural
aiguiserie (f): tool sharpening works
ajusteur de soulier (m): shoe fitter
aliment conservé (m): preserved food
alimentation (f): feeding or nourishment
allumette (f): match
ambrotype (m): anglicism of *ambrotype
amidon (m): starch
amidonnerie (f): starch factory
amidonnier (m): starchmaker
anneau (m): ring, link or chain
anse (f): handle
antimoine (m): antimony
appareil (m): apparatus, machine or instrument
appareil de chirurgie (m): surgical appliance
appareil de closet (m): water closet fixture. The word closet is probably a derivative of the anglicism closette
appareillage (m): fixture
apprêt (m): preparation or manner of preparing something such as cloth, silk or lace. Also, the substance used in the preparation process
aratoire (adj): pertaining to farming
arc (m): bow, long bow or arch
architecte (m): architect
ardoise (f): slate
ardoise d'école (f): school slate
argent (m): silver
argenter (verb): to silverplate
argile (f): clay
armoire (f): closet or cupboard
armurerie (f): gunsmith or armourer's shop
armurier (m): *gunsmith or armourer
arpent (m): a French acre, which is about 1 1/2 English *acres
arrosage (m): watering, sprinkling or irrigation
arrosoir (m): watering can
article de fantaisie (m): novelty or fancy articles
articles variés (m, pl): miscellaneous wares
artiste (m): artist
assiette (f): plate
atelier d'usinage (m): machine shop
attaché de fenêtre (f): window fastener
attelage (m): harnessing or yoking
attelle de collier (f): harness collar
aubépine (f): hawthorn
aune (m): alder tree
aune/aulne (f): a unit of length of 1 1/4 metres
autel (m): altar
auvent (m): awning
avis (m): notice
avoine (f): oats

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

bâche (f): tarpaulin
bague (f): ring
baguette à clou (f): nail spike
balai (m): broom
balance (f): *scale
balle (f): bale
banc (m): bench or settle
bandage (f): belt, truss or tyre
baquet (m): a small washtub or bucket
baratte (f): *churn
bardeau (m): *shingle or *clapboard
bardoleur (m): shinglemaker
baril (m): small barrel, keg or cask
barque (f): bark, boat or small craft
barrette (f): axle, pin, bolt or bar
barrique (f): large barrel that holds about 63 Canadian gallons
barroline d'escalier (f): decorative turned rods used to support a hand railing along stairs
bas (m): stockings
bas de côtes (m): short rib or chop. In the Census, probably derived from côtelette
bateau (m): boat
bâtiment (m): building, structure or ship
bâtiment à voile (m): sailing ship
bâtisse (f): building or masonry of a building
bâtisseur (m): builder
batteuse (f): *thresher
baume (m): balm
baume de bon samaritan (m): Good Samaritan ointment. In the Census, a product of a drug factory
beaux-arts (m,pl): fine art
bêche (f): garden spade
berge (f): barge or narrow boat
berline (f): * Berlin
berlot (m): a smaller carriage than a berline, used for transporting passengers or merchandise
bétail (m): livestock
bêtes à corne (f,pl): cattle
beurre (m): butter
bicarbonate de soude (m): baking soda
bidon (m): canteen or drum for storing liquid
bière (f): beer
bière d'épinette (f): spruce sap
bière de gingembre (f): *ginger beer
bijou (m): jewellery
bijou pour les cheveux (m): hair jewellery
bijouterie (f): jewellery shop
bijoutier (m): jeweller
billard (m): game of billiards or a billiard table
billot (m): log. Also a large, short stump of wood that is levelled on top and used in the Census as a unit of measure
biscuit (m): biscuit or cracker
blanc de chaux (m): white wash
blanchissage (m): action of cleaning laundry. Also refers to the action of refining sugar
blanchisserie (f): *bleaching mill
blanchissoir (m): brush used for *whitewashing
blé d'Inde (m): Indian corn
bloc (m): block
bloc à brosse (m): block used for a brush handle
blouse (f): blouse, smock or tunic
blutoir (m): *bolter. Used in the Census as *smut machine.
bobsleigh (m): anglicism for *bobsleigh, two short sleighs coupled and used for drawing logs, or tobagganing
bocardage (m): metal stamping
boeuf (m): beef or ox
bois (m): wood
bois à face non-polis (m): wood with an unpolished surface
bois blanc (m): white wood
bois de charpente (m): lumber
bois de chauffage (m): firewood. In the Census, often abbreviated as chauffage.
bois de construction (m): lumber
bois de rose (m): rosewood
bois de sciage (m): sawn lumber
bois equarri (m): squared lumber
bois mou (m): soft wood
boiserie (f): *wainscotting
boiserie de voiture (f): woodwork in a carriage or wagon
boisseau (m): *bushel
boîte (f): box
boîte d'emballage (f): *shook or packing box
boîte de carton (f): cardboard box
boîte en fer-blanc (f): tin box or can
boîtier (m): watch case or instrument case
bol de bois (m): wooden bowl
bombe (f): spray flask, boiler kettle or bomb
bonbons (m,pl): candy
bonde (f): *bung
bonnet (m): cap
bonneterie (f): *hosiery or hosiery shop
bordure (f): frame or edge
botte (f): boot, bale or bunch
botte sauvage (f): Indian moccasin boot
bottine (f): high buttoned boot or bootee
boucan (m): Québécois for a small grill used for smoking meat
boucane (f): Québécois for smoked
boucanerie (f): Québécois for smokehouse
boucaniére (f): Québécois for a small grill used for smoking meat or fish
boucher (m): butcher
bouchon (m): cork or plug
boucle (f): shoe buckle, ear-ring
boudin (m): blood sausage or black pudding
bougie (f): wax candle
bouilloire (f): boiler or kettle
boulanger (m): baker
boulangerie (f): bakery or baker shop
bouleau (m): birch
boulon (m): bolt
bouquet (m): bouquet
bourras (m): thick canvas made from hemp *oakum
bourre (f): stuffing, or waste from *carding wool or cotton
bourrure (f): Québécois for stuffing
bout (m): bit, piece or fragment
bouteille (f): bottle
bouton (m): button
bouvet (m): *joiner's grooving plane
boyau (m): hose, intestine or catgut
braid (m): braid or lace
brasserie (f): brewery or brewing
brasseur (m): brewer
bride (f): bridle or bridle-rein
brique (f): brick
briqueterie (f): brick works
briqueteur (m): bricklayer
briquetier (m): brickmaker
briquette de tourbe (f): prepared peat fuel
brocanteur (m): junk shop owner
broche (f): peg, pin or textile spindle
broderie (f): embroidery
broquette (f): tack
brosse (f): brush
brosserie (m): brushworks
brossier (m): brushmaker
brouette (f): wheelbarrow
broyage (m): grinding or pounding
broyage de lin (m): flax *scutching
broyage de quartz (m): quartz crushing
broyage des os (m): bone crushing
buff (m): anglicism for chamois colour. In the Census, used as a raw material of a shoemaker, along with *prunelle and elastic.
buffet (m): sideboard or buffet
buis (m): box

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

cabriolet (m): *cabriole or a light two-wheeled carriage
cadre (m): frame
cafetière (f): percolator or coffee-pot
caillou (m): pebble
cailloux (m,pl): gravel
caisse (f): case, box or chest
calandre (f): *mangle
calcaire (m): limestone
calèche (f): Québécois for a light two-wheeled open carriage, or cabriolet£
calicot (m): *calico
canot (m): canoe
caoutchouc (m): india rubber
cap de cheminée (f): chimney cap. Use of the word cap is probably an anglicism.
capine (f): Québécois for a woman or child's winter hood
capot (m): hooded cloak
caque (f): keg or herring barrel
caractères d'imprimerie, fonderie des (f): type foundry
cardage (m): carding
cardeuse (f): carding machine
carisé (m): Québécois for wool serge-like cloth. Also known as cariset or carisel.
carriole (f): Québécois for a small, covered cart used for transporting travelers
carrosse (m): coach
carrosserie (f): coach making works
carrossier (m): coachmaker
carte de carbon (f): carbon card
carte de visite (f): calling card
carton(m): cardboard carton
casmir/cassimere (m): *cassimere or a fine wool fabric
casque (m): Québécois for a fur cap
casquette (f): cap
casquetterie (f): capmaking works
casquettier (m): capmaker
cassonade (f): brown sugar
castille/casteel (f): anglicism for cast or tempered steel. The term casteel, also used in the Census, is probably a further derivative of the Anglicism castille.
castor (m): beaver
catalogne (f): rag rug or bed cover
cèdre (m): cedar
ceinture fléchée (f): Quebécois for a decorative woven belt with flecks of two or more colours in the pattern.
cendres (f,pl): ashes
cerceau (m): general term for barrel hoop, whether wood or metal
cercle (m): used in the Census to refer to a barrel hoop. Normally translated as circle.
cercle de bois (m): wooden barrel hoop
cercle de douve (m): barrel hoop
cercle de métal (m): metal barrel hoop
cercueil (m): coffin
chaîne (f): chain
chaise pour chemin de fer (f): *railway chair
chaland (m): barge or scow
châle (m): shawl
chaloupe (f): ship's boat, launch or rowboat
chaloupe, construction de (f): boat building
chandelier (m): candlestick
chandelle (f): candle
chandellerie (f): candle works
chanvre (m): hemp
chapeau (m): hat
chapelier (m): hatmaker
chapellerie (f): hatmaking or hatmaking establishment
char (m): wagon
char pour chemin de fer (m): railway car
charbon (m): coal
charbonnier (m): charcoal burner or coal dealer
charbonnier (f): charcoal kiln or coal box
charcuterie (f): pork butcher shop
charcutier (m: pork butcher
chariot d'epierreur (m): probably a stoneworker's wagon or cart
charpente de maison (f): house framework
charpentier (m): *carpenter
charpentier de navire (m): shipwright
charrette (f): cart
charron (m): *wheelwright
charrue (f): plough
chartine (f): In the Census, used as a raw material of a dressmaker. Probably is a derivative of *charmeen, a fine worsted dress fabric.
châssis (m): window frame
chaudière (f): *boiler or steam engine
chaudron (m): *cauldron
chaudronnerie (f): boiler works or foundry
chauffage (m): heating
chaussure (f): footwear or footwear industry
chaussure prête à foucerent (f): shoes ready to be soled. In the Census, the word foucerent is probably an incorrect grammatical construction used instead of foucer.
chaussure d'homme (f): a generic term for men's footwear
chaussure d'homme enfant (f): boys' footwear
chaussure de femme (f): a generic term for women's footwear
chaussure de femme enfant (f): girls' footwear
chaussure de feutre (m): felt footwear
chaussure sauvage (f): moccasin footwear
chaussure taillée (f): shoe cuttings
chaux (f): lime
chemin de fer (m): railway
chemise (f): shirt
chemisette (f): short-sleeved shirt
chemisier (m): shirtmaker
chêne (m): oak
chenille (f): chenille, or silk cord
cheval ferrée (m): horse shod with iron
cheveux (m,pl): hair
cheville (f): a wood or metal pin or peg
chevreuil (m): roe or roe-deer
chicorée (f): chicory
chiffon (m): rag, scrap or bit
chiffonnier (m): rag-seller or a small cabinet used for storing women's jewellery, needles or papers
chignon (m): *chignon
chimique (adj): chemical
chirurgie (f): surgery or dispensary
cidre (m): cider
cierge (m): *taper
cigare (m): cigar
ciment (m): cement
cintre (m): clothes hanger
cirage (m): waxing or polishing
cire (f): wax
cire de paraffine (f): *paraffin wax
cloche (f): bell
cloison (f): partition
clos de pierre (f): stoneyard
closette/clasettes (f,pl): anglicism for water closet
clou (m): nail
cobourg (m): Cobourg
coche (m): coach
cochon (m): pig
coffre-fort (m): fire-proof safe
coiffe (f): hood or head-dress
coin (m): wedge
col de papier (m): paper collar
colle (f): glue or paste
colle forte (f): strong glue or paste
collier (m): collar for animal
collodion (m): *collodion
colombage (m): a row of pillars or vertical joists in a partition or wall
colonne (f): column
colophane (f): *rosin
comble (m): roof-timber
comestibles (m,pl): food produce or eatables
commode (f): dresser or bureau
comtoire (m): In the Census, refers to counter. Probably a misspelling of comptoir.
complet (m): a suit of clothes
comptoir (m): counter. In the Census, often spelled as comtoire.
conducteur (m): conductor
confection (f): making ready-made clothes
confiserie (f): confectionery shop
confiseur (m): confectioner
congress (f): anglicism for *congress boot, an elasticized high buttoned boot
conserve de fruit (f): preserved fruit
conserve de homard (f): preserved lobster
constructeur (m): builder or contractor
construction (f): building, structure or construction
contre-plaqué (m): plywood veneer
contrevent (m): outside window shutter
corbeille (f): light basket
cordage (m): rope or cordage
corde (f): rope, cord or twine
corderie (f): ropemaking or ropemaking works
cordonnerie (f): shoemaking or shoemaking shop
cordonnier (m): shoemaker
corniche (f): cornice
corroyeur (m): *currier
corset (m): corset
côté (m): side
côtelette (f): cutlet or chop
coton (m): cotton
coton à chaine (m): cotton chain or netting. In the Census, used as a raw material for making flannel.
cotonnade (f): cotton cloth or *calico
couchette (f): small bed, berth or bunk
couchette au fer (f): iron bed, berth or bunk
coude (m): elbow, bend or angle
couleur (f): colour
coulomb (m): *coulomb
coupe (f): cutting
couperon bois de teinture (m): possibly a special axe for cutting wood to extract dye.
courbe (f): a curved part. In the Census, used as a raw material in ship building, and perhaps refers to the bowed frame of a boat or ship.
courroie (f): belt or strap
coutelier (m): *cutler
coutellerie (f): cutlery or cutler's shop
couture (f): sewing or needlework
couturier (m): director of a sewing establishment
couturière (f): seamstress or dressmaker
couvert (m): lodging, shelter or table setting
couverture (f): covering, blanket or quilt
crachoir (m): spittoon
crampage de botte (m): boot fastening
crème de tartre (f): *cream of tartar
crêpe (m): *crape or veil
crible (m): sieve or sifter
crin (m): horse hair, bristles, fibre or mane
crinoline (f): *hoop skirt or crinoline
croisée (f): casement window
crosse de cricket (f): cricket bat
croûton (m): cruton
cruche (f): pitcher, jar or jug
cuir (m): leather or hide
cuir à coudre (m): leather for sewing
cuir à cramponner les bottes (m): leather used for fastening boots
cuir à harnais (m): harness leather
cuir à selle (m): saddle leather
cuir à semelle (m): leather for shoe soles
cuir brut (m): rough unrefined leather
cuir fendu (m): split leather
cuir noir (m): black leather
cuir patent (m): patent leather
cuir retaillé (m): cut leather
cuir rouge (m): red leather
cuir taillé (m): cut leather
cuir travaillé (m): worked leather
cuir vernis (m): glazed or polished leather
cuivre (m): copper
cuivre jaune (m): brass
culotte (f): breeches
cuve (f): *cuve
cuvette (f): *cuvette

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

dallage (m): flagstone or cement paving
dalle (f): a conduit used for eavestroughing, or to direct water to a mill wheel. In the Census, produced with wood by a laddermaker.
daleau/dalot (m): small masonry aqueduct
dame (f): lady
dégraissage (m): scouring
dent (f): tooth
dents artificielles (f,pl): false teeth
dent plombée (m): filled tooth
dentelle (f): lace or lace work
dentiste (m): dentist
dents posées (f,pl): set teeth
distillerie (f): distillery
dorure (f): gilding or glazing
doublure (f): lining. In the Census, often the archaic spelling, doubleure, is used.
douelle (f): small barrel *stave
douille (f): joint or socket. In the Census, produced in a saw mill.
douve (f): barrel *stave
douzaine (f): dozen
drap (m): cloth
droguerie (f): drug store or trade
drogues (m,pl): drugs
duvet (m): down, wool nap or fluff

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

eau (f): water
eau gazeuse (f): aerated water
ébène (f): ebony
ébéniste (m): cabinetmaker
ébénisterie (f): cabinetmaking or cabinetmaking shop
échelle (f): ladder
écheveau (m): *skein
éclairage de gaz (m): gas lighting
écorce (f): bark
écorce tanner (f): tanning bark
écurie (f): stable, mews or stud
édifice (m): building or structure
effet (m): small miscellaneous object
église (f): church
élastique (m): elastic band
embouffeter (verb): archaic Québécois for verb to tongue and groove wood, embouveter
embouffeteur (m): archaic Québécois for one who tongue and grooves wood
empeigne (f): leather used for the upper part of a shoe
encre (f): ink
enduit (m): coat or coating of plaster
enfant (m): child
engin (m): machine
engrais (m): fodder
enseigne (f): store sign
épice (f): spice
épiceries (f,pl): groceries
épinette (f): spruce
épuration de l'huile (f): oil refining or purification
équipement (m): equipment or outfit
équipment pour chauffage (m): heating equipment
érable (m): maple
escalier (m): stairs or staircase
essence (f): essence
essieu (m): *axle-tree, spindle or pin
essoreuse (f): wringer
estampeur (m): engraver or stamper
étain (m): tin or pewter
étalon (m): a legal unit of measure
étampe (f): stamp or die
étiquette de marchand (f): price or merchant tag
étoffe (f): cloth or fabric. Québécois for woolen fabric.
étoffe à bourre (f): lint from *carding process
étoffe brute (f); unfinished or undressed cloth
étoffe de menage (f): *homespun cloth
étoffe du pays (f): *homespun cloth
étoffe foulée (f): *fulled cloth
étoupe (f): *tow or *oakum
étrille (f): curry comb
extrait d'écorce (m): bark extract
extrait pour tanner (m): bark extract used in a *bark pit for the tanning process

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

fabrication (f): manufacture or fabrication
fabrique (f): factory
fabrique de drap: cloth factory
façon (f): making or workmanship
facture (f): bill or invoice
fagot (m): *faggot or bundle of sticks
faïence (f): *earthenware, pottery, or thick glazed tile
faneuse (f): haymaking machine
farine (f): flour or meal
farine d'avoine (f): oatmeal
farine de maïs (f): cornmeal
farine d'orge (f): barley meal
farine moulue (f): ground or powdered flour
faux (f): *scythe
faucher (verb): to reap
faucheuse (f): reaper or mower
femme (f): woman
fenaison (f): hay making
fer (m): iron or wrought iron
fer à cheval (m): horseshoe
fer boue (f): iron dirt or dust
fer d'essieu (m): iron axle
fer écossais (m): Scottish iron
fer engensais (m): possibly a regional word created to mean partially processed iron. Another possible spelling is fer enginsais. In the Census, used in the Mauricie region.
fer forgé (m): wrought iron
fer manufacturé (m): processed iron
fer-blanc (m): tin plate or tincoated iron
ferblanterie (f): tinware or tinware establishment
ferblantier (m): *tinsmith
ferrage (m): iron steel binding
ferraille (f): scrap iron
ferrement (m): iron trimming
ferronerie (f): iron or metal work, or a hardware store
ferronnier (m): iron worker
ferrure (f): ironwork or iron binding
fesse de cochon (f): pork rump
feuillard (m): flexible branch used for making cask hoop
feuille de tuyaux (f): sheet of tin for making pipes. In the Census, produced by a tinsmith.
feuillet de fer-blanc (m): sheet of *tinplate
feutre (m): *felt
feutre à toiture (f): *felt used for roofing
ficelle (f): string or twine
fil (m): thread or yarn
fil de fer (m): wire
fil galvanisé (m): galvanized wire
filage (m): spinning or spun wool
filasse (f): *tow or *oakum
filet de pêche (m): fishing net
fiole (f): phial
flanelle (f): flannel
flanelle de ménage (f): homespun flannel
fleur artificielle (f): artificial flower
fleur boulangée (f): kneaded bread dough. In the Census, used as a raw material in a bakery.
fleur de farine (f): Québécois for white, fine quality flour. Often abbreviated in Census as fleur.
fleur de papier (f): paper flower
fleuriste (m): natural or artificial florist
flotteur (m): wooden raft or float
foin (m): hay
fonderie (m): *foundry
fondeur (m): founder or smelter
fonte (f): cast iron or smelting
forge (f): forge or iron-works
forgeron (m): blacksmith
forme pour le chapeau (f): hat form or hat shape
forme pour le chaussure (f): *last
fouet (m): whip
foulage (m): *fulling
foulerie (f): *fulling mill
fouleur (m): fuller
fouloir (m): fulling machine
four (m): kiln
four à chaux (m): lime kiln
four à houblon (m): hop oven
fourche (f): pitchfork or fork
fourgon (m): wagon or fire-iron
fourniture (m): *furniture, supplies, provisions or furnishing
fourreur (m): furrier
fourrure (f): fur
fourrure de train (f): possibly wooden studs used as spacers between sheets of metal or wood to line a railway car. In the Census, produced by a saw mill.
frange (f): fringe
frêne (m): ash
fromagerie (f): cheese factory
fruit (m): fruit
fruit artificiel (m): artificial fruit
fruit confit (m): preserved fruit
fuseau (m): spindle
fusée (f): fuse or spindle of axe
fusil (m): gun or rifle

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

gabourage (m): by-product of flour milling in the Laval district
gaiter (m): anglicism for *gaiter. In the Census, sometimes used instead of the French word guêtre.
galère (f): a large carpenter's *plane with 2 handles
galette (f): thin cake or sea biscuit
gallon (m): gallon
gant (m): glove
ganterie (f): glove factory
garniture (f): trimming
gâteau (m): cake
gaudriole (f): Québécois for a mixture of oats, peas, and sometimes buckwheat usually used for animal feed
gaz (m): gas
gaz, fabrique de (m): gas works
gélatine (f): gelatine
genou (m): knee or ball and socket joint
gerbe (f): sheaf or bundle
gilet (m): vest or waistcoat
glace (f): ice or plate glass
glacière (f): Québécois for *ice-box or ice house
glaise (f): clay
goélette (f): schooner
gomme (f): gum, rubber or eraser
goudron (m): tar
goudrier (m): Québécois for prepared leather used for making soles of shoes
gouttière (f): eavestrough
gouvernail (m): rudder or helm
grain (m): grain
graine de lin (f): linseed
graisse (f): grease or fat
grand-côtes (f): wagon sides. In the Census, a product of a foundry that also makes wagons.
grange (f): barn
granit (m): granite
grappin (m): a small anchor, or a cleat for a shoe sole
gratte (f): scraper
gravure (f): engraving or print
gravure de billet de banque (f): bank note engraving
gréement (m): rigging
grelot (m): harness bell
grosse (f): *gross
grosserie (f): large miscellaneous objects
gruau (m): partially ground wheat flour
guenille (f): rag
gueuse (f): pig iron
guêtre (f): *gaiter or spat

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

habillement (m): clothing or clothes
habit (m): clothes or dress-coat
habit huilé (m): oiled clothing
hache (f): axe
hangar (m): shed, cart-shed or outhouse
hardes (f,pl): wearing apparel or worn clothing
hardes non-cousues (f,pl): unsewn wearing apparel
harnais (m): harness
hart (f): strip of pliant wood. In the Census, often used as raw material in basketmaking.
hausse semelle (f): block sole leather
hélice (f): screw or propeller
herse (f): *harrow
hêtre (m): beech
homard conservé (m): preserved lobster
horloger (m): *watchmaker
horlogerie (f): clocks and watches, and watchmaking
houblons (m,pl): hops
houille (f): coal or pit-coal
huile (f): oil
huile d'odeur (f): scented oil
huile de lin (f): *linseed
huile de lubrifiant (f): lubricating oil
huile de morue (f): cod oil

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

impression (f): print, stamp or impression
imprimerie (f): printing or printing establishment
imprimeur (m): printer
Indien (m): Indian
indienne (f): *calico
installation (f): installation or equipment
installation de cuivre (f): brass fittings
installation de fer (f): iron fittings
installation de plomb (f): lead fittings
installeur de moulin (m): *millwright
instrument (m): instrument
instrument aratoire (m): *farm implement
instrument de mathématique (m): mathematical instrument
instrument de musique (m): musical instrument
instrument scientifique (m): scientific instrument
ivoire (m): ivory

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

jalousie (f): window shade or *venetian blind
jambe artificielle (f): artificial leg. In the Census, made by a blacksmith using iron.
jambon (m): ham
jaquette (f): jacket
jarre (f): jar
jeu de moulin à scie (m): mechanical parts of a saw mill
jonc (m): rush, cane or ring
joujou (m): toy
journal (m): newspaper
joyaux (m): jewels

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

label de métal (m): metal label
lainages Berlin (m): * Berlin woolen goods
laine (f): wool
laine cardée (f): *carded wool
laine filée (f): spun wool
laine non-cardée (f): uncarded wood
laine prête à filer (f): wool ready to spin
lambrissage (m): *wainscoting or panelling
laminerie (f): *rolling mill
lampe (f): lamp
lard (m): bacon
lard salé (m): salted bacon
lard salé et séché (m): salted and dried bacon
latte (f): lath
lave-mains (m,pl): washstand. In the Census, usually spelled without the hyphen. levure (f): yeast
liasse (f): bundle or file of papers
libellé (m): wording. In the Census used as a raw material in a drug factory. Probably refers to labels for drug containers.
licou/licol (m): halter
ligne (f): fishing-line, cord or line
ligneul (m): pitched shoemakers' thread
limaçon (m): spiral shaped. In the Census, the archaic spelling, limasçon, is used.
lime (f): file
lin (m): flax
liqueur (f): *cordial or liqueur
lisse de voiture peinturé (f): polished skid or runner for a sleigh that has been dipped in a protective liquid
lithographe (m): lithographer
lithographie (f): lithograph
livre (f): a pound in weight
livre (m): book
livre blanc (m): blank book
livre de compte (m): accounting book
longe (f): tether, leading rein or thong
loquet (m): latch
loutre (f): otter or otter fur
lucarne (f): dormer window or sky-light

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

macadam (m): *macadam
machine à blanchir (f): bleaching machine
machine à coudre (f): sewing machine
machine à faucher (f): reaping machine
machine à laver (f): washing machine
machine à vapeur (f): *steam engine
machine de calandre (f): *mangle machine
machine de faux (f): scything machine
machine-outil (m): *machine tool
machinerie (f): machinery
machinerie de métier (f): factory machinery
maçon (m): mason or bricklayer
maçonnage (m): mason's work
maçonnerie (f): stone work or masonry
madrier (m): thick plank
magasin (m): store or shop
maison (f): house
maison partie (f): house section. Probably an English construction for the correct form, partie de maison.
malt (m): malt
malterie (f): malt house or works
manche (m): hose-pipe
manche à balai (m): broom handle
manchon (m): muff or *mantle
manchonnier (m): Probably an archaic word for *mantuamaker or muffmaker
manne (f): hamper or flat basket
manteau (m): *mantle, cloak or overcoat
marbre (m): marble
marbrerie (f): marble works
marbrier (m): marble worker
marchand tailleur (m): *merchant tailor
marchandises sèches (f, pl): *dry goods
maroquin (m): morocco leather
marteau (m): hammer
martre/marte (f): marten
mastic (m): cement or putty
mât (m): *spar or mast
matelas (m): mattress or pad
mécanicien (m): *mechanic
mèche (f): wick, fuse, bit or drill
médecine brevetée (f): patent medicine
médecine patentée (f): patent medicine
médicament (m): medicine
mélasse (f): molasses
mélèze (m): tamarack
melodion (m): melodeon. In the Census, the anglicism melodeon is used.
membre (m): Québécois for a runner or skid for a winter sleigh
menoire (f): Québécois for harness traces
menuiserie (f): carpentry or woodwork
menuisier (m): carpenter
mérinos (m): cloth from fine wool of the Spanish breed of merino sheep
merise (f): wild cherry
merisier (m): wild cherry tree
mesure de grain (f): grain measure
mesure de planche (f): board measure
métal (m): metal
métier à la main (m): handcraft work
métier à tisser (m): loom
meublerie (f): Québécois for furniture making or furniture making shop
meubles (m,pl): furniture
meubles de ménage (m, pl): household furniture
meublier (m): Québécois for furniture maker
meule (f): *grindstone or *millstone
meule à aiguiser (f): grindstone sharpening works
miel (m): honey
mine de fer (f): iron ore mine
minerai (m): ore
minot (m): peck or 8 Canadian gallons
minot à linge (m): Probably a laundry tub or hamper that holds a volume of one minot .
minoterie (f): flour mill
minotier (m): *miller or flour miller
mitaine (f): mitten
mode (f): millinery
modiste (f): milliner
moissonneuse (f): *reaper
montre (f): watch
monture (f): mount, setting of gems or frame
monture de collier (f): mounting of animal collar
morceau (m): piece
morceau de navire (m): ship block
mort aux rats (f): rat poison
mortier (m): mortar
morue (f): cod
moule (m): mould
moule à fonderie (m): foundry mould
moulée (f): *provender. Québécois for a quantity of sacks of grain ready for grinding.
moulerie (m): moulding shop
mouleur (m): moulder
moulin (m): *mill or grinder
moulin à bardeau (m): shingle mill
moulin à battre (m): threshing mill
moulin à beurre (m): rotating butter churn
moulin à broyage de lin (m): *scutching mill
moulin à carder (m): *carding mill
moulin à farine (m): flour or grist mill
moulin à farine d'avoine (m): oatmeal mill
moulin à fouler (m): *fulling mill
moulin à haché (m): grinding mill
moulin à orge (m): barley mill
moulin à pâture (m): feed mill
moulin à scie (m): saw mill
moulin à sorghum (m): *sorghum mill
moulin à tapis (m): carpet mill
moulin à tricoter (m): knitting mill
moulin à vent (m): wind mill
moulu/moulue (adj): ground or powdered
moulure (f): moulding
mou/molle (adj): soft or limp
mousse (f): moss
mousseline (f): muslin
mouton (m): sheep or mutton
mouton de Perse (m): Persian lamb
mouture (f): process or product of grinding grain or a mixture of ground wheat, rye and barley. Also, Québécois for a *miller's toll of one tenth of a peck.
mouvement de moulin (m): mechanical moving parts of a mill or grinder
moyeux (m,pl): hub

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

navire (m): vessel or ship
navire à voile (m): sailing ship
noir (m): blacking for shoes
noir de fumée (m): *blacking
noisette (f): hazelnut
nombre (m): number
noyer (m): walnut
noyer noir (m): black walnut
noyer tendre (m): soft walnut

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

objets de caoutchouc (m): india rubber objects
objets de style sauvage (m): Indian manufactures
objets indiens (m, pl): Indian handicrafts
oeuf (m): egg
once (f): ounce
or (m): gold
orfèvre (m): goldsmith or *silversmith
orfèvrerie (f): gold and silversmithing or gold and silversmithing establishment
orge (f): barley
orge écolé (f): husked barley
orge mondé (f): blanched barley
orge perlé (f): pearl barley
orgue (m): organ
orme (m): elm
ornement (m): ornament
ornement funèbre (m): funeral ornament
osier (m): wicker
ouate (f): wadding or cotton wool
outil (m): tool or implement
outil à tailler de pierre (m): stone cutting tool
outil agricole manuel (m): agricultural hand tool
outil manuel (m): hand tool
outillage de pêche (m): fishing tackle
ouverture (f): opening
ouvrage (m): work or piece of work
ouvrage à la campagne (m): *country work
ouvrage indien (m): Indian work or handicraft
ouvrage neuf (m); new work
ouvrier (m): Québécois for carpenter. Normally translated as worker.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

paille (f): straw
paille, fabrique de (f): straw factory
pain (m): bread or loaf
paire (f): pair
palatine (f): *fur tippet or *victorine
paletot (m): topcoat
palissade (f): fence
panier (m): basket or hamper
pantalon (m): trousers or pants
pantoufle (f): slipper
papeterie (f): paper factory or stationery
papier (m): paper
papier de verre (m): sand paper
papier sable (m): sand paper
papier, fabrique de (m): paper factory
paquet (m): package, bundle or parcel
parapluie (m): umbrella
parfum (m): perfume
parfumerie (f): perfumery
passage de peaux (m): treatment of skins in the tanning process
passe (f): refers to various types of netting, such as for sieves or for mosquito protection. In the Census, used as a raw material for a milliner, and a carpenter who made sifters.
passement (m): *lace
passementerie (f): lace-making factory
passementière (f): lacemaker
patate (f): potato or sweet potato
pâte (f): paste, dough or batter
patin (m): skate
pâtisserie (f): pastry or pastry shop
pâtisseur (m): used in Census as pastry cook or baker
pâtissier (m): pastry cook
patte (f): paw of animal
pâture (f): feed or animal fodder
peau (f): skin or hide
peau crue (f): uncured or raw skin or hide
peau d'orignal (m): moose skin or hide
peau verte (f): uncurried leather
pêche (f): fish
peintre (m): painter
peinture (f): paint or painting
peinture à l'huile (f): oil painting
pelle (f): shovel
pelleterie (f): fur or furmaking establishment
pelletier (m): *furrier
perche (f): pole
perlasse (f): archaic word for *pearl ash, which is partially refined potash
perlasserie (f): archaic word for pearl ashery
perron (m): front steps of a house
perruque (f): wig
persienne (f): venetian window shutter
petit pain (m): bun
petit tonneau (m): keg
pharmacien (m): pharmacist or druggist
phosphore (m): phosphorus
photographe (m): photographer
photographie (f): photograph or photography
piano forte (m): piano
pièce (f): piece
pièce montée (f): show piece
pied (m): foot
pied carré (m): square foot
pied cubique (m): cubic foot
pied de mesure (m): foot measure
pied de planche (m): board foot
pied de superficie (m): superficial foot
pierre (f): stone
pierre à chaux (f): limestone
pierre artificielle (f): *artificial stone
pierre brute (f): unhewn stone
pierre de bon rouge (f): a type of stone. In the Census, used as raw material in a stone crushing establishment for producing *macadam.
pierre de carrière (f): quarry stone
pierre de taille (f): cut stone
pierre tumulaire (f): tombstone
pilule (f): pill
pin (m): pine
pince à linge (f): clothes peg
pinceau (m): paint
pioche (f): pick axe
pipe (f): tobacco pipe
piqué (f): Québécois for quilted mattress cover
piquet (m): peg, stake or picket
plafond (m): ceiling
planche (f): board or plank
planche mesure (f): board measure
plancher (m): floor or deck planking
plaque d'imprimeur (f): printer's plate
plat (m): dish, plate or food
platine (m): platinum
plâtrage (m): plaster-work
plâtre (m): plaster or gypsum
plâtrier (m): plasterer
plâtrière (f): plaster kiln
plinthe (f): plinth or skirting board
plomb (m): lead
plombagine (f): plumbago
plomberie (f): plumber's shop or leadworks
plombier (m): *plumber
plume (f): feather
plume d'autruche (f): ostrich feather
poche (f): pouch, bag or pocket
poêle (m): stove
poids (m): weight
poignée (f): handle
poil (m): animal hair
poinçon (m): *puncheon or large cask
point (m): stitch
pointe (f): etching needle, nail or tack
pointe pour chemin de fer (f): *railway spike
pois (m): pea
poisson (m): fish
pomme de terre (f): potato
pompe (f): pump or ceremony
pompe à feu (m): fire engine
pompe à incendie (f): fire engine
pompe funèbre (f): funeral ceremony
porc (m): pork
porc salé (m): cured pork
porche (m): porch
porte (f): door or doorway
porte-guide (f): a holder for a harness rein. In the Census, used as a raw material of a saddler.
portemanteau (m): a type of suitcase made of leather or cloth
portrait (m): portrait or picture
pot (m): pot, jug or tankard
pot en fer-blanc (m): tinware pot
potager (m): Québécois for a worker's dinner pail, or a milk pail. Also a kitchen garden.
potasse (f): potash
potasserie (f): probably an archaic word for potash works
poteau (m): post or stake
poterie (f): pottery
potier (m): potter
pouce (m): inch
poudre (f): powder
poudre à boulanger (f): baking powder
poudre à canon (f): gunpowder
poudre à pâte (f): baking powder
poudre à tirer (f): gun powder
poudre levain (f): baking powder
poulie (f): pulley or block
poulierie (f): probably an archaic word for pulleymaking or pulleymaking shop
poulieur (m): probably an archaic word for pulleymaker
poutre (f): beam or girder
préparation privée (f): private preparation
presse du foin (f): *hay presser
produit (m): produce, product or production
produits chimiques (m): chemicals
pruche (f): hemlock
prunelle (f): *prunella

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

quart (m): goblet that holds 1 litre
quartz (m): quartz
queue (f): tail, stalk or stem
quincaillerie (f): hardware
quintal (m): *quintal or hundredweight. In the Census, the abbreviation cwt is used.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

rabot (m): plane
raccommodage (m): repairing or mending
raccommodeur (m): one who repairs or mends
radeau (m): raft
radoub (m): Québécois for general repairs. In the Census, sometimes spelled, radou.
raffinerie de sucre (f): sugar refinery
rais/rai (m): wheel *spoke
rame (f): oar or *ream of paper
raquette (f): snowshoe
raser (verb): to shear, normally used in connection with shaving animal fur. In the Census, used to describe dressed cloth products in a fulling mill.
râteau (m): rake
râtelier (m): a set of false teeth or dentures
rebut (m): refuse or rubbish
refais à copier en cuivre (m): probably a copper plate used for making printed copies. In the Census, produced by a founder.
relieur (m): bookbinder
reliure (f): bookbinding
remède (m): remedy or medicine
remise (f): coach-house, mews or shed
renfort (f): reinforcement
réparage (adj): repairing or mending
réparation (f): repairs
repassage (m): grinding or sharpening of cutlery
résine (f): *rosin or *resin
ressort (m): spring or elasticity
rivet (m): rivet or clinch
robe (f): dress or gown
rognure (f): paring or clipping
rognures (f,pl): scraps or refuse
rôtisseur (m): roaster, person
rôtissoire (f): roaster, thing
roue (f): wheel
roue de fonte (f): cast iron wheel
roue de navire (f): ship wheel
rouet (m): spinning wheel
rouet à filer (m): spinning wheel
rouleau (f): roll, roller or rolling pin
roulier (m): wagoner, carter or carrier
ruban (m): ribbon, band or tape
ruche (f): beehive

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

sable (m): sand
sabot (m): wooden shoe
sabotier (m): wooden shoemaker
sac de papier (m): paper bag
saindoux (m): lard
salaison de viande (m): meat curing
saloir (m): salt-box or salting-tub
salsepareille (f): *sarsaparilla
sangle (f): strap, belt or webbing
sapin (m): fir
sapinette (f): spruce
sarrasin (m): buckwheat
saucisse (f): *sausage
saucisse à boudin blanc (f): salami from white sausage
saucisse boucanée (f): smoked sausage
saucissier (m): probably an archaic word for *sausagemaker
saule (m): willow
saumon amariné (m): marinated salmon
saumure (f): brine
saunerie (f): saltworks
saunier (m): saltmaker
savon (m): soap
savonnerie (f): soapworks
scie (f): saw
scierie (f): saw mill or lumber mill
sculpteur (m): sculptor or carver
sculpture (f): sculpture or carving
seau (m): pail or bucket
seigle (m): rye
sel (m): salt
sel à perlasse (m): *black salt
sel noir (m): black salt
selle (f): saddle
sellerie (f): saddlery
sellette (f): small saddle
sellier (m): *saddler
semelle (f): sole of boot or shoe
semelle fausse (f): false sole
semoir (m): seed-bag, seed-drill, or a sower for sowing grain
serrure (f): lock
serrurier (m): *locksmith
set de manchon (m): an anglicism for an assortment of mantles
silicate (m): *silicate
simili-cuir (m): artificial leather
sirop (m): syrup
soc (m): *ploughshare
soc de charrue (m): sharpened cultivator blades used in a plow
sofa (m): sofa. In the Census, sometimes spelled, sopha.
soie (f): silk
soie de Naples (f): Naples silk. In the Census, often abbreviated to soie Naples .
soierie (f): silk goods or silkmaking
son (m): bran
sopha (m): sofa
sorgho (m): *sorghum. In the Census, the anglicism sorghum is used.
soude (f): soda
soufflet (m): one pair of *bellows
soufre (m): sulphur
soulier (m): shoe
soulier mou (m): moccasin
soupière (f): soup tureen
sous-vêtements (m,pl): underclothes
splette (m): Québécois for split leather
spring (m): anglicism for spring, a small wood or metal shank placed between the sole and insole of a shoe to protect its shape.
statuaire (f): sculptor, or the art of making statues
statue (f): statue
steamer (m): anglicism for steamer
stuc (m): stucco
sucre (m): sugar
sucre de plomb (m): lead crystals
sucrerie (f): sugar refinery
sucreries (f,pl): sweets
suif (m): *tallow
suif clarifié (m): refined *tallow
suif non-fondu en brute (m): unrefined and unmelted *tallow
supertartrate of potasse (m): anglicism for tartaric acid derived from potash. In the Census, a raw material in a baking powder factory.
surtout (m): overcoat

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

tabac (m): tobacco
tabac à priser (m): tobacco snuff
tabac blanc en torquette (m): tightly rolled tobacco leaves. Probably an archaic phrase for cigarette.
tabac cassé (m): chopped tobacco
tabac coupe (m): cut tobacco
tabac en feuille (m): leaf tobacco
tabac en haché (m): ground tobacco
tabac en poudre (m): powdered tobacco
tabac mis en paquet (m): packaged tobacco
tableau (m): picture
taillage (m): cuttings. In the Census, used as a product of a tailor.
taille de pierre (f): cut stone
tailleur (m): tailor, cutter or hewer
talon (m): heel
tan (m): * tan bark
tannerie (f): *tannery
tannette (f): *tan bark. In the Census, a raw material for tanning hides. Probably a derivative of tan.
tanneur (m): tanner
tapis (m): carpet
tapisserie (f): tapestry, wall paper or upholstery
tapissier/ière (m/f): upholsterer
targette (f): slide-bolt
tarière (f): auger
taure (f): heifer
taxidermiste (f): taxidermist
teint (m): dye or colour
teinture (f): dyeing
teinturerie (f): dyeing, dyeworks, scouring works or drycleaning
teinturier (m): dyer, scourer or dry-cleaner
tendre (adj): soft, delicate or sensitive
tente (f): tent
tenture (f): hanging, tapestry or wallpaper
térébenthine (f): *turpentine
térébenthine, fabrique de (f): turpentine distillery
terre (f): earth
terre à brique (f): clay used for brickmaking
terre à feu (f): fired earth. In the Census, used in a moulder's shop.
terre commune (f): common, ordinary soil
terrine (f): *earthenware pan
tête (f): head
textile (m): textile
théière (f): teapot
thépot (m): an anglicism for teapot
tilleul (m): lime-tree or linden-tree
tine (f): tub or cask
tinette (f): butter tub
tinette à beurre (f): butter tub
tinette à poisson (f): fish tub
tissage (f): weaving or cloth mill
tissanderie (m): weaving, or a weaving shop
tisserand/ande (m/f): weaver
tissu (m): fabric or material
toile (f): cloth, linen or canvas
toile à parquet (f): floor covering of cloth
toile cirée (f): *oilcloth
toilette de dame (f): lady's attire
toise (f): *toise
toiture (f): roofing or roof
tôle (f): sheet iron
tôle galvanisée (f): galvanized iron
tôlerie (f): sheet ironmaking or foundry
tombereau (m): tip-cart
tonnage (m): tonnage
tonne (f): tun, wooden vessel or ton
tonneau (m): barrel or cask
tonnelier (m): *cooper
tonnellerie (f): cooperage
toube (m?): probably an anglicism for tub. In the Census, produced by several coopers in the Gaspé area using spruce wood.
tour (m): *lathe
tour à bois (m): turning lathe for wood
tourbe (f): peat or turf
tourneur (m): *turner
traîne (f): a low wagon or sleigh used for carrying wood of sacks
traîneau (m): sleigh
traîneau d'amusement (m): toy sleigh or toboggan
trait (m): harness trace or bolt
traverse (f): *railway tie
treillis (m): latticework made of wood or iron
tricot (m): knitting
tricoteur/euse (m/f): *knitter
tripe (f): tripe or guts
tuilerie (f): tile works
tulle (m): tulle or net
tuyau (m): pipe
tuyau de plomb (m): lead pipe
tweed (m): anglicism for *tweed
twist (m): anglicism for *twist
typographie (f): typesetting

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

vache fendue (f): split cow-hide
vaisseau (m): vessel or ship
vaisseau de tannerie (m): vessel for tanning
vaisselle (f): plate or dish
valise (f): trunk or suitcase
vannerie (f): basketmaking
vannier (m): basketmaker
varlope (f): a large carpenter's *plane
vase (m): vase or vessel
vase en fer-blanc (m): tinware vessel or container
veau (m): calf skin leather
veau français (m): French leather
véhicule (m): vehicle
vélocipede (m): *velocipede or bicycle
velours (m): velvet
velours à côtes (m): corduroy
velours de coton (m): *velveteen
vent (m): possibly a specialized container. In the Census, produced by a cooper in the Chicoutimi area along with *cuves, pails and barrels.
verge (f): yard
verge carré (f): square yard
verge cubique (f): cubic yard
vernis (m): *varnish
verrerie (f): glassware or glassworks
verrier (m): glassmaker
veste (f): jacket or vest
vestepièce (f): vest cuttings ready for sewing
vêtement (m): garment
viande (f): meat
viande de porc (f): pork meat
viande fraîche (f): fresh meat
viande salée (f): cured meat
victorine (f): anglicism for *victorine, a type of fur tippet that is also known as palatine
vin (m): wine
vinaigre (m): vinegar
vinaigrerie (f): vinegar factory
virole (f): *ferrule, metal band or cap
vis (f): screw
vison (m): mink
vitre (f): windowpane
vitrier (m): *glazier or glassmaker
voile (f): canvas or sail
voilerie (f): sail making factory
voiture (f): carriage, coach, cart or vehicle
voiture d'été (f): carriage
voiture d'hiver (f): Québécois for sleigh
voiture de roulier (f): carriage
voiture ferrée (f): iron carriage
voiturier (m): *wheelwright or carriagemaker

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

wagon (m): railway carriage

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

zinc (m): zinc

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